19.6 - More on adverbs

Basic adverbs of time, place and manner were presented on page 9.7. By now, it is to be hoped, you have gained a better understanding of how Ukrainian words are derived from each other, and will appreciate more complex adverb formation and use.

The simplest adverbs of manner are formed by adding -о or -е to the stem of an adjective, for example, швидкий швидко, добрийдобре. There are, however, several other ways of forming these. Given below are some examples, but not an in-depth discussion, of the formation process. If you can identify the individual components, it should be easy to work out the meaning of the whole.

Adverbs may be formed by combining:

prefix + adjectival stem + ки

завдовжки
in length
шість метрів завдовжки
по-американськи
American-style
біфштекс по-американськи

prefix + adjectival stem + ому

по-доброму
amicably
Віддайте борг по-доброму!

prefix + adjectival stem + vowel or zero ending

здавна
long ago
Як здавна святкували Різдво?
згори
from the top
отримати допомогу згори
вповні
fully
вповні використати можливості
попросту
simply
Нам попросту не дають можливості заробляти гроші.
наперекір
in spite of, counter to
діяти наперекір

noun stem + ом/ем

даром
free of charge, as a gift
віддати даром
живцем
alive
зловити когось живцем

що + noun in genitive

щороку
every year
Щороку їдемо відпочивати.

adjective/modifier + noun

обабіч
on either side, on both sides
обабіч дороги

(prefix) + noun stem + ки/и

пошепки
in a whisper
говорити пошепки
верхи
astride, on horseback
їхати верхи

The standard defintion of an adverb is "a word which describes when, where or how an action takes place". However, an adverb can also describe a noun, if that noun has been derived from a verb:

стрибати вгору
to jump up
стрибок угору
a jump up
бігти наввипередки
to race, try to outrun (someone)
біг наввипередки
a race to outrun (someone)
ходити пішки
to walk, go on foot
ходіння пішки
walking
розмовляти вголос
to talk (converse) out loud
розмова вголос
a conversation out loud

To practise understanding adverbs go to Exercise 19.6A.

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© 2007 Marta Jenkala