19.7 - Summarising sentences

It is possible to convey a certain amount of meaning by using simple sentences in a set order (see the text on page 10.6, in which the author effectively uses short, simple sentences to reflect the repetitiveness and monotony of her job).

Apart from sequence, however, there are many other types of relations between events, emotions and ideas, and these can only be expressed through combining short sentences into more complex ones. As has been discussed in this unit, this is done through the use of conjunctions and pronouns, which either link two or more sentences on an equal footing (coordination) or subordinate one sentence or more to another, creating a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

Subordinate clauses can be categorised (in a simplified way) into the following types (each introduced by specific conjunctions or pronouns):

  • those replacing an object, introduced by хто, як, що etc:
Скажи Олені, що ми вже готові. Tell Olena that we're ready.
  • relative clauses, describing a noun in the main or a less subordinate clause, introduced by який, чий, що etc:
Це та жінка, яку ми бачили вчора. This is the woman we saw yesterday.
  • indirect questions, introduced by де, коли, що, котрий, скільки etc:
Скажіть, будь ласка, куди нам завтра треба їхати. Please could you tell me where we are to go tomorrow.
  • conditional clauses, introduced by якщо, якби etc:
Якщо обрид тобі хтось, позич йому грошей. (народна приказка) If you're tired of someone, lend them money. (folk saying)
  • clauses denoting causation, purpose, admissibility etc., introduced by тому що, через те що, щоб, хоч etc:
Поїзд затримався через те що була погана погода. The train was delayed because of (there was) bad weather.
  • explanatory or illustrative clauses, introduced by тобто etc:
Мова була про корпорацію, тобто – колективне тіло. The discussion was about the corporation, that is, a collective body.

On page 19.1 you analysed the very long definition of the word "constitution". Given below is another long and complex sentence (71 words this time!), giving a definition of "judo". Read the sentence carefully, paying particular attention to the relationship between its various parts, then do Exercise 19.7A.

Дзюдо – це єдиноборство і цим воно схоже на життя: під час поєдинку з незнайомим суперником, що продовжується лише п'ять хвилин, ти розраховуєш тільки на себе і ті знання та навички, що набув за довгі години тренувань, виконавши мільйони повторень та вивчивши десятки прийомів і комбінацій, з яких ти можеш застосувати за секунду лише один прийом для остаточної перемоги при шаленому опорі і такому ж бажанні перемогти твого не менш кваліфікованого суперника.

(adapted from www.kmbs.ua)

Exercise 19.7A

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© 2007 Marta Jenkala