Adjectives

In Ukrainian stress in adjectives is fairly straightforward as, once you know where the stress falls in the dictionary form, this does not shift when the adjective is declined. It’s therefore best to learn the stress at the same time as you learn the word and its meaning. For those interested in how the language works, some of the rules for placing stress on adjectives are listed here.

The most frequently used, and useful, adjectives have been grouped, below, into those with end stress (on the first syllable of the ending where this has two syllables) and those with stem stress. Stress in diminutive forms of adjectives is not addressed here. Frequently-used diminutives e.g. мале́нький are simply listed under the appropriate group. Also included here are comparatives, e.g. нові́ший, and pronouns with adjectival endings, e.g. яки́й.

Adjectives with stem stress

The majority of adjectives have stem stress, most frequently on the syllable before the ending.

An example of an adjective with stem stress: вели́кий - big, great.

  Masculine singular Neuter singular Feminine singular Plural
Nominative вели́кий вели́ке вели́ка вели́кі
Genitive вели́кого вели́кої вели́ких
Dative вели́кому вели́кій вели́ким
Accusative вели́кий / вели́кого вели́ке вели́ку вели́кі / вели́ких
Instrumental вели́ким вели́кою вели́кими
Locative вели́кому (вели́кім) вели́кій вели́ких
Vocative вели́кий вели́ке вели́ка вели́кі

Other adjectives like this

Adjectives with end stress

A smaller group of important adjectives have end stress (if the ending consists of two syllables, stress will fall on the penultimate syllable). In the comparative some adjectives shift their stress from the ending to the stem, e.g. молоди́й моло́дший. Where the comparative is formed with the suffix -іший, the stress falls on the «і». The superlative, with the addition of the prefix най-, has the same stress as the comparative.

An example of an adjective with end stress: дороги́й – dear, expensive.

  Masculine singular Neuter singular Feminine singular Plural
Nominative дороги́й дороге́ дорога́ дорогі́
Genitive дорого́го дорого́ї дороги́х
Dative дорого́му дорогі́й дороги́м
Accusative дороги́й / дорого́го дороге́ дорогу́ дорогі́ / дороги́х
Instrumental дороги́м дорого́ю дороги́ми
Locative дорого́му (дорогі́м) дорогі́й дороги́х
Vocative дороги́й дороге́ дорога́ дорогі́

Other adjectives like this

Exercise

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© 2012 Marta Jenkala