Particles

Most particles are short words which do not change their form. A particle can be one of a number of parts of speech. The material below will help you to revise the principal meanings and pronunciation of the most frequently used particles (even though many don’t present a problem, as they are composed of just one syllable!).

More information on particles in Ukrainian, their meanings and use: Read Ukrainian! page 19.5.

неnot

ні/а́ні́no, neither

би/бexpressing conditional

ажup to, as far as, as many as

же/жexpressing emphasis

на́вітьeven

адже́for, after all

ті́льки, лише́only

са́ме, якра́зprecisely, just

хоч биeven if (only)

хіба́?really? is that so?

невже́!?surely (not)!? that can’t be!

авжеж́of course, naturally, indeed

ма́йжеalmost, nearly

прибли́зноapproximately

та́ко́ж*, тежalso

чи?changing a statement into a question

хай, неха́йlet, may

осьhere is, that is

як...!how...!

що за...!what (a) …!

*one of a small number of words in Ukrainian where the stress may fall on either syllable.

Exercise

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© 2012 Marta Jenkala